Friedrick II, King of Italy 1215-1250
CNI IV, 45, 138, PCGS-graded AU-58
Bergamo. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Frederick II right. Reverse: Tower gate.
Friedrich II was certainly the most controversial ruler of medieval times. An enlightened modern leader, or an anti-Papal despot? In any case he was excommunicated numerous times, yet while under the stigma of excommunication, went to Jerusalem and recovered Jerusalem for Christendom. He viewed himself as a successor to the great Roman Emperors, which put him at odds with the Pope, since the Emperors did not recognize anyone superior to themselves.